The Ultimate Glossary Of Terms About CPR And First Aid

Circumstances requiring first aid or CPR can happen suddenly and without warning.  Before such a time comes it is best to be prepared with basic knowledge of terms and tools for both first aid and CPR.  Familiarity with common terminologies, products and concepts is the first step to administering first aid or CPR appropriately and when needed.  The ultimate glossary of terms about CPR and first aid is compiled here to build this familiarity and help you help others.

First Aid

Before getting into the alphabetical glossary, it is necessary to define first aid itself.  First aid is best defined as the initial care given to a sick or injured person until official medical treatment may be provided.  Below is the ultimate glossary of terms of common first aid practices and products.  The goal of first aid boils down to five main goals.  These five goals are often referred to as the 5-P’s of first aid.  The goals are: to preserve life, to prevent illness/injury from worsening, pain relief, promote recovery, protection of the unconscious.  To accomplish each of these goals there are elements of care with a variety of terms listed below that can aid and assist in accomplishing many scenarios that may require some first aid action.

First aid is often the first step to recovery from a litany of conditions or ailments.  It is also crucial to recognize when first aid is only the initial treatment of a bigger medical treatment need.  It is best practice to consult a professional medical provider or emergency services when a medical event occurs.

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1st degree burn—mild burn exhibited by pain and redness of the top layers of the skin

2nd degree burn—more sever burn of lower skin layers causing pain and showing redness, swelling, and blisters

3rd degree burn—through the dermis or deepest layers of skin causing pain or numbness and appearing white or blackened

911—emergency phone number for American emergency services

A

Abdomen—belly part of the body containing digestive organs

Abnormal—not typical or expected

Abrasion—act of being scraped or wearing off

Abscess—swollen part of the body containing pus

Acetaminophen—drug used to treat pain and fevers

ACLS—advanced cardiovascular life support

Acute—severe degree of, intense

Adhesive—able to stick to, sticky

Adrenaline—hormone given off during times of stress

Adult—any person past the age of puberty

Advanced cardiovascular life support—used by trained medical personnel in emergency response, it goes beyond basic life support (BLS) to include airway and pharmacology intervention

Advanced life support—often referred to as ALS, comprises more complex life support measures such as supporting ventilation

AED—automated external defibrillator, electric medical device used to detect arrhythmic heart rates and administer shock if needed

Airbag—safety device inside vehicles that inflate to cushion passengers in event of a collision

Alcohol—applied to the skin as a disinfectant

Alert—ability to think clearly

Alka-seltzer—antacid pain reliever used for upset stomach, general pain and more

Allergy—immune response of hypersensitivity to certain substances

Aloe vera gel—natural remedy made from aloe plants that can help skin heal from sunburn

Ammonia—cleaning fluid

Amputation—part of the body separated or cut from the rest of the body

Analgesic—pain relieving drug

Anaphylaxis—acute allergic reaction where the body is hypersensitive

Anemia—condition being deficient of red blood cells or hemoglobin leading to paleness or weariness

Anemic—to suffer from anemia, being lack of color

Anesthetic—substance which causes insensitivity to pain

Angina—condition of chest pain which is intense and central to an area of the chest and could spread

Anomaly—outside the ordinary

Antacid—medication taken to neutralize stomach acid to reduce heartburn, indigestion or upset stomach symptoms

Antibiotic—medicine which destroys microorganisms

Antihistamine—drug used to treat allergies

Antiseptic—substance used to prevent growth of disease-causing microorganisms

Apnea—a pause in breathing pattern lasting more than twenty seconds

Artery—muscular tube in the body which circulates blood from the heart to all the body

Asphyxia—interruption of blood flowing through the body causing lack of oxygen and abundance of carbon dioxide

Aspiration—process to take breath

Aspirin—compound used to relieve pain and inflammation

Assess—to evaluate the quality, review the area, review of the body from head to toe to determine ailment or condition needing treatment

Asthma—respiratory condition resulting in difficulty to breathe

Avulsion—a sudden separation or tearing away

B

Bacteria—group of microorganisms that can cause disease or illness

Bandage—strip of material used to bind wound

Basic life support—often referred to as BLS, it comprises basic first aid and CPR treatments

Biohazard—biological work or that with microorganisms that poses risk to health

Biopsy—sample of tissue for purposes of testing within a laboratory

Bite—cut by use of teeth

Bleeding—loss of blood from inside the body due to injury

Blood pressure—pressure level of blood in circulation which relates to the force of the heart beating

Blood sugar—concentration of the blood’s glucose

Blood—red liquid circulating inside the body which carries oxygen/carbon monoxide to/from body tissues

Brachio—related to the arms

Breathing—taking air in and out of the lungs

Bruise—injury with discolored skin appearance

Burn gel/cream—used on burn injuries to draw heat from the area and prevent the heat damage from penetrating deeper into the skin, it also protects against contamination

Burn—injury caused by a fire or heat source, see also: electric burn, thermal burn, chemical burn, 1st, 2nd, 3rd degree burns

Butterfly closure—adhesive and narrow strip used to close ends of small wound together

Bystander—person nearby an incident

C

Calamine—pink soothing ointment or powder typically used to treat itching skin

Car seat—portable seat made for attachment to a passenger seat for securing a baby or small child

Carbon monoxide—toxic gas

Cardiac—having to do with the heart

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation—often referred to as CPR, medical procedure to compress the chest and restore blood circulation

Cardiopulmonary—having to do with the heart and lungs

Carotid artery—major artery on either side of the neck supplying blood to the brain

Cellulitis—tissue under the skin that is infected

Central nervous system—the brain and spinal cord

Cerebrovascular accident—sometimes referred to as a stroke, disruption of blood supply to brain due to ruptured blood vessel or artery being blocked

Chain of survival—denotes the likelihood of survival for patients with a cardiac emergency, the chain includes five steps: recognition of cardiac arrest and call for emergency services, immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rapid defibrillation, basic/advanced emergency medical service, advanced life support measures and post care

Chemical burn—burn caused by exposure to hazardous chemical

Chest pain—pain localized to the chest area

Child—any person between the age of one year and before puberty

Choke—difficulty breathing caused by constriction or blockage

Cholesterol—compound within the blood that in high amounts can lead to coronary heart disease and cause a heart attack

Cleansing wipe—moist material to remove dirt

CNS—central nervous system

Collapse—give way or fall

Collision—violent striking or a moving object against another object moving or still with force

Coma—deep prolonged unconsciousness

Compound fracture—broken bone protruding through the skin

Compression—thrusts 1 ½ to 2 inches in depth into the center of the chest to promote oxygenated blood flow to vital organs during CPR

Compress—to press or squeeze together

Concussion—blow to the head that leaves one unconscious with aftereffects of confusion

Conforming bandage—elastic binding dressing that stretches to mold to the body, ideal for otherwise difficult to wrap areas or atop a dressing over a wound to retain in place

Confusion—circumstance displayed by one’s lack of understanding or panic

Congestion—state of being abnormally full or blocked by ways of blood, mucus or other substance

Conscious—awareness and response, awake

Contract—to develop, such as developing an illness or disease

Contraction—shortening of uterine muscles in preparation for child delivery

Contusion—area of injured tissues with broken capillaries

Convulsion—sudden irregular and often involuntary movement usually associated with brain disorder

Corticosteroid—steroid hormone used to treat arthritis, allergies and other conditions

Cotton tip applicator—swab to collect sample for laboratory testing or to apply medication to a wound

Cough—response of the body following irritation of throat or airway

CPR face mask—piece of personal protective equipment (PPE) used to create barrier and safely deliver rescue breaths during CPR

CPR—cardiopulmonary resuscitation, act

Cramp—muscle pains and spasms

C-spine—cervical spine commonly referred to as the neck

Cut—an opening or incision typically of the skin

Cyanosis—blue skin discoloration resulting from decreased oxygen

D

Debris—scattered material or waste

Decongestant—medicine to reduce nasal passage congestion

Dehydration—reduction in amount of water within the body that can be harmful

Delirium—a disturbed state of mind sometimes caused by fever or under influence of drug or alcohol

Derma—related to the skin

Diabetes—disease wherein the body’s ability to regulate glucose is abnormal

Diabetic coma—unconsciousness due to insufficient use of insulin which leads to increased glucose

Diaphoresis—sweating excessively

Diarrhea—frequent feces discharge

Dilate—to become larger, wider, more open

Discharge—liquid flowing from confinement, such as from previous containment in the body

Dislocation—injured disturbance from normal placement as in a joint or other body part

Disoriented—loss of sense of surety or direction

Diuretic—substance increasing amount of water running through the body

Dizzy—spinning sensation that can cause losing of balance

Dramamine –antihistamine often used as a counter to nausea, often related to air or water travel

Dressing—protective material upon a wound

E

EKG— electrocardiogram, display and record of heartbeat produced by electrocardiography

Elastic bandage—stretchy bandage used in a wrap design to support the attached area

Electrical burn—burn caused by electricity contact

Electrocardiogram—also known as EKG is a display and record of heartbeat produced by electrocardiography

Electrocardiography—electrical activity measurement of the heart

Electrocution—injury of someone by means of electric shock

Elevate—lift to a higher position that it was or than is the normal position

Embolism—blood clot

Emergency code—notice given of event requiring immediate actions

Emergency department—section of a hospital administering immediate care

Emergency oxygen—administered for many cardiac or breathing related emergencies

Emergency services—typically identified in America as immediate police, fire or medical needs

Emergency—serious, sudden dangerous situation needing counteraction immediately

EMT—emergency medical technician, beginning level care provider in emergency medical services

Encepha—related to the brain

Entonox—pain relieving gas

Epidermis—outer layer of skin

Epilepsy—neuro disorder featuring recurrent episodes of disturbances to consciousness

Epi-pen—injection of epinephrine to open the lungs and narrow blood vessels which is used to treat extreme allergic reactions

ER—emergency room

External bleeding—bleeding outside the surface of the body from an open wound

Eye pads—small pads to absorb a secretion from the eye

Eye wash—solution for cleansing of the eyes

Eye wash station—unit equipped to wash out the eyes if in contact with hazardous chemicals, typically with a large volume of water and change of clothes

F

Face shield—type of personal protective equipment (PPE) used to cover entire face from a hazard or infection

Faint—dizzy and/or weak that can lead to unconsciousness

Fall—movement downward without control

Fall risk—patient denotation given when a person is especially prone to a fall and can cause additional harm

Fatigue—extreme tiredness inhibiting mental and physical response sometimes brought by excess mental or physical exertion

FBAO—foreign body airway obstruction

Febrile convulsion—seizure in children due to change in temperature, typically overheated

Finger cot—medical device to cover an entire finger where a full glove is not necessary

First aid kit—contained collection of basic medical products to give medical treatment with items such as bandages and medical cleansers for use of injury or illness

Foam—small mass of bubbles from a person’s mouth

Food poisoning—illness caused by food contaminated by bacteria, toxins, or viruses

Fracture—break or crack in hard object such as bone

Frostbite—injury to body tissue from extreme cold exposure

G

Gasp—strained inhale of breath

Gastro—related to the stomach

Gauze—thin material used for dressing or swabbing a wound

Glaucoma—increased pressure within the eyes

Gloves—hand covering worn as personal protective equipment

Glucose—sugar energy source in living organisms

H

Health care professional—one who works and operates within a branch of healthcare such as medicine, surgery, dentistry, etc

Heart attack—caused by blockage of artery from being supplied blood and oxygen

Heart burn—gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Heart rate—also known as pulse, throbbing rhythmically of arteries carrying blood throughout the body

Heart—organ which pumps blood

Heat exhaustion—condition resorting from loss of fluid due to excess heat

Heat therapy—used for pain relief with a hot bottle/pad/cloth often in instances of muscle stiffness

Heatstroke—condition of fever and sometimes unconsciousness where the body failed to control its temperate from exposure to high heat

Heimlich maneuver—procedure to clear windpipe obstruction

Hemato—related to the blood

Hemorrhage—intense escape of blood

Hemorrhoid—swollen veins in anal area

Histo—related to tissue

Humidifier—device to emit moisture

Hyperglycemic—high level of blood sugar

Hypertension—high blood pressure

Hypoallergenic—designation as unlikely to cause allergy

Hypoglycemic—low level of blood sugar

Hypotension—low blood pressure

Hypoxia—oxygen deficiency in body tissues

I

Ibuprofen—compound used as an anti-inflammatory

Ice therapy—used for pain relief with an ice pack or cold pack for a variety of causes which can include those without inflammation

Icepack—frozen medical tool to apply cool sense to injured area, best to be kept from direct contact with skin and maintained for periods of 20 minutes

Immediate—done at once

Incision—cut made via surgery

Infant—any person less than one year of age

Infection—being infected by way of disease causing organism

Ingest—to take in the body, via swallowing or absorption

Inhaler—portable administration tool for drug to relieve asthma

Injection—driving force of entry for medicine under pressure

Injury—fact of being damaged, harmed or injured

Insulin—hormone regulating glucose in blood

Insulin shock—condition from excess insulin in the bloodstream leading to low blood sugar, weakness or even coma

Internal bleeding—closed wounds bleeding inside the body

Intervention—action taken to improve upon a situation

Invasive—requires entering the body

Iodine—antiseptic

Irritant—substance causing discomfort, inflammation or other irritation to the body

J

Jaundice—condition with yellowing of skin, or the whites of the eyes due to excess bilirubin caused by issue within the liver

L

Laboratory—building for conduction of experiment or for treating of chemicals or drugs

Laceration—deep tear or cut of the skin and flesh

Lack—to be without or not enough of something

Laxative—medicine to initiate evacuation

Lesion—wound, sore, cut

Lightheaded—being dizzy or faint

Lumbar support—support designed to keep the spine aligned

M

Magnesium sulfate—salt bath to soak skin and ease muscles and joints

Medication—drug or substance used to treat medical condition

Membrane—pliable tissue in a thin layer

Mini stroke—experience of the brain caused by temporary lack of blood and can have effects of a wide range

Mucus—substance slimy and created for lubrication

Myocardial infarction—heart attack

N

Nausea—feeling sick and likely to vomit

Needle disposal—safe disposal of needles to prevent unintended needle prick

Needle—fine hollow metal point end of a syringe

Nerve—bodily fiber transmitting sensory impulses to muscles and organs

Noninvasive—does not require entering the body

Normal—typical or expected

Nosebleed—to bleed from the nose

Numb—lack of sense of feeling

O

Oedema—excess fluid in tissues or in cavities of the body

Ointment—oily smooth skin medicine

One-way valve—permitting to flow in a single direction, such as the heart pumps blood or a CPR mask valve protects from patient’s fluids blocking air from the rescuer

Orally—by way of mouth

Orthostatic hypotension—can cause fainting from standing at attention, where the blood does not circulate from the lower legs and lacks flow to the brain

Overdose—excessive amount of a drug

Oximeter—tool to measure oxygen levels of the blood

Oxygen—life-supporting gas

P

Pain—physical discomfort caused from an injury or illness

Paper tape—also known as surgical or medical tape, pressure-sensitive adhesive to hold a bandage to a wound

Paracetamol—pain reliever and fever reducer

Paramedic—trained emergency medical care for those who are seriously ill or injured, often with advanced training to treat and stabilize patient outside of the hospital setting, often from an ambulance

Parts bag—sterile bag used to collect and transport amputated body parts or teeth/chipped teeth for possible reattachment

Patient—person who is receiving medical treatment

Pediatric—branch of medicine treating children

Pelvis—lower part of the main body mass between legs and abdomen

Personal protective equipment—also referred to as PPE comprises gloves, masks gowns, and more to protect the wearer from hazards

Pharmacy—store dispensing medicines and drugs

Physician—one who is qualified to practice medicine

Pinch—to bring a finger and thumb together to close

Pocket mask—personal protective equipment (PPE), small mask creating barrier to deliver rescue breaths, also known as CPR mask

Poison—substance which causes illness

Poison control center—medical facility able to immediately treat over the phone in the event of exposure or ingestion of hazardous or poisonous substances

Polybag—plastic resealable bag used for containing contaminated objects or waste such as biohazard soiled clothing

Polyp—this mass of tissue

Prescription—medicine instruction written by medical practitioner for particular treatment

Preserve—to keep alive

Pressure—continued force applied by contact with wound usually to cease bleeding

Pressure point—places on the body where blood can be stopped by enough means of pressure to major artery

Prevent—to stop from happening

Primary care—day to day healthcare administration typically outside of specialty care

Probe—instrument used to inspect wound

Projectile—travelling with some force through the air

Promote—to enhance the progress of

Prone—position lying face down

Protect—to keep safe from injury or harm, aim to preserve

Pulled muscle—also known as muscle strain, muscle becomes overstretched or torn, common to lower back or legs

Pulse—throbbing rhythmically of arteries carrying blood throughout the body, best places on the body to feel for a pulse are either wrist, either elbow crease, either side of the neck, or the top of either foot

Puncture—small hole usually caused by sharp object or a piercing

Pus—yellow and thick liquid produced by infected tissue containing bacteria

R

Recovery position—laying on the left side of the body which decreases aspiration issues

Recovery—returning to a state of health

Relieve—reduction or causing of pain to be less

Respiration—action of taking a breath

Responsive—quick or able to react or answer

Resuscitate—to revive from unconsciousness or death

Revive—regaining of life, consciousness or ability

RICE—rest, ice, compression, elevation, used for treating damage to soft tissues or bruising

Rinse—wash with clean water, sometimes with or without soap, to remove dirt

S

Safe—not exposed to rick or danger

Safety pin—pin and point bent back and held in guard, used to secure

Safety shower—unit designed to allow for washing of the head and body if in contact with hazardous chemicals, usually equipped with water, change of clothes, and safe container for items soiled with hazardous material

Salt water rinse—measurement of ½ teaspoon of salt to one cup water, used by swishing, gargling, and rinsing around the mouth to wash bacteria away and loosen mucus

Samaritan—helpful person

Scissors—instrument used to cut

Scrape—when the skin is damaged by being rubbed against a surface

Seatbelt—strap or belt to prevent person from injury by securing to seat, found in vehicles and aircraft and more

Seizure—a sudden onset of illness usually displayed by collapsing and convulsions

Semi-prone—position lying on one’s side, typically the left in first aid

Septic—filled with bacteria

Sharps container—hard plastic container designed to collect sharp instruments for safe disposal

Shock—(state of) a disturbance which can cause instability from an experience that was upsetting, (from and AED during CPR) an electro current delivered to the heart

Silvadene—prescription burn cream used for second- and third-degree burns

Sinus—nasal cavity

Sling—fabric or strap looped to offer support or relieve weight

Sore—ache in part of the body

SPF—sun protection factor which indicates the effectiveness or protective lotion or cream, level of protection often found in sunblock

Splinter—thin, small, sharp piece of material usually glass or wood

Splint—rigid, often wooden material, used to restrict movement where there is a broken bone

Sprain—twisted ligaments of a joint that resort to swelling

Sterile pads—clean material free of bacteria used to clean or protect wounds

Sternum rub—common physical stimulus practiced in emergency response when patient fails to respond to verbal stimuli, sternum rub is the application of pain from a fist rubbed to the center of the chest

Stimuli—something that causes a reaction

Sting—sharp organ of bees, ants, wasps and more which creates pain or burning sensation

Stool—a piece of feces

Stretcher—frame of various construction type meant to make an injured person portable

Stroke—interruption within the brain causing loss of consciousness or disability suddenly

Sunblock—lotion of cream designed to prevent the skin from penetrating violet ray damage

Sunburn—overexposure to violet rays from the sun leaving skin red, inflamed, blistered or peeling

Supplement—additional to, more than what is supplied

Suppressant—substance used to restrain, such as a cough suppressant

Sutures—stitches, used to bring together edges of a wound

Swab—absorbent piece of material used to clean a wound or apply medication

Swell—portion of the body enlarging beyond regular size from accumulation of fluid

Symptom—physical or mental condition indicative of having illness or disease

Syringe—tube and nozzle for ejecting liquid

T

Tailbone pillow—used to cushion when siting upon it for conditions such as hemorrhoids, herniated discs, and post-surgery recovery

Temperature—degree of heat or body temperature

Tetanus—extra contraction of a muscle by repeated measures, also known as muscle spasm

Thermal blanket—emergency thermal blanket used for reducing heat loss for treatment of hypothermia

Thermal burn—burn caused by heat exposure as from fire, hot liquid or other heat source

Thermometer—temperature detecting instrument

Tissue—material plants and animals are made of

Tongue depressor—small flat wooden instrument to press on tongue to allow clear inspection of mouth or throat

Toothache—pain in the teeth with varying degrees of severity

Topical—applied onto a part of the body

Tourniquet—device for stopping blood flow when compression does not succeed

Trauma-shock or serious injury to the body

Treatment—season of medical care

Triage—medical method to prioritize treatments

Triangular bandage—large piece of cloth in right triangle shape, used as a sling and secured with safety pins

Tweezers—small pincers usually used to grip minute objects such as splinter or hair

Twitch—jerking movement, suddenly

U

Unconscious—to be unaware, something done without being realized

Unresponsive—without a response

Urine—fluid discharged from the bladder

V

Vein—tubes within the body carrying blood to the heart

Ventricular defibrillation—heart rhythm problem of rapid impulses similar to a quivering effect without pumping blood effectively

Vertigo—whirling sensation caused often by looking down from heights

Victim—a person harmed or injured

Viral—caused by a virus

Virus—agent of infection causing disease or illness

Vomit—matter ejected through the mouth from the stomach uncontrollably

W

Water—basic fluid of life for living organisms

Water break—flow of amniotic liquid from pregnant female

Weak—lack of physical power to perform

Wound—injury to the tissue by any means of impact, cut, or abrasion

X

X-ray—photo image of parts of the body by x-rays being passed through

Y

Yeast—fungus able to cause infection

Z

Zinc oxide tape—commonly applied to joints and muscles by stabilizing them for athletes, used to protect wounds and accelerate healing

CPR

Similar to first aid, it is helpful to understand CPR’s definition before additional terminology related to it.  CPR is the common abbreviation for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  CPR is a medical intervention maneuver used when the heart has stopped circulating blood due to cardiac arrest.  CPR is done to circulate oxygenated blood to the brain and other vital organs while the heart is not doing so on its own.  CPR can greatly increase the victim’s rate of survival, and knowing the various terms that comprise CPR can help the rescuer to achieve their goal of helping the victim.  Many terms within CPR are synonymous with first aid, with special emphasis given to heart-related terminology, tools, and methods related to giving CPR.

CPR is essential to supporting and increasing a victim’s chances of survival, but it is not the sole method for treating someone suffering cardiac arrest.  CPR should be used in conjunction with professional medical treatment called for at the very first opportunity.  These steps are part of what is known as the 5-P’s of first aid, described above.  Tying the 5-P’s of first aid into CPR is quite simple.  The first P, preserve life is done by the sheer drive to intervene as a Samaritan.  Second, prevent, is done by checking the scene for additional safety hazards and setting up for CPR.  Next, pain relief, the sooner the cardiac arrest can be corrected the likely the patient is to feel some pain relief.  Fourth, promote recovery.  Promoting recovery is done already simply by beginning CPR.  The sooner CPR begins, the better the chances of recovery are.  Finally, protection of the unconscious.  Again, checking the scene for safety and treating them with vital CPR methods is offering their life some sanctity.

Continue on with the ultimate glossary of terms about CPR below.  Knowledge is power, and both will be needed if faced with administering this life-saving skill.

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1 second—length of time to give rescue breath

100-120—rate or speed of compressions per minute

2—number of rescue breaths between compression cycles

30—compression count between rescue breaths

911—emergency service number to call right away when determining medical response is necessary

A

ABC—airway, breathing, circulation

Abnormal—not typical or expected

ACLS—advanced cardiovascular life support

ACT—assess the situation, call 911, treat the victim by beginning CPR

Acute—severe degree of, intense

Adhesive—able to stick to, sticky

Adult—any person past the age of puberty

Advanced cardiovascular life support— used by trained medical personnel in emergency response, it goes beyond basic life support (BLS) to include airway and pharmacology intervention

AED—automated external defibrillator, electric medical device used to detect arrhythmic heart rates and administer shock if needed

AED pads—adhesive electrode pads designed to detect the heart’s rhythm and administer a shock if needed, AED pads come in sizes for different aged patients where the most appropriate pads should be used for optimal results

Airway—open using the head tilt/chin lift method to deliver rescue breaths

Arrhythmia—condition of the heart beating irregularly

Artery—muscular tube in the body which circulates blood from the heart to all the body

Aspirin—compound used to relieve pain and inflammation, can also be used by those with coronary disease to prevent heart attacks

Assess—to evaluate the quality, review the area, review of the body from head to toe to determine ailment or condition needing treatment

B

BAC—breathing, airway, circulation

BPM—beats per minute in a song that can help keep track of the 100-120 compressions needed per minute, examples: Staying Alive, Walk The Line, Crazy in Love etc.

Bystander—person nearby an incident

C

CAB—compressions, airway, breathing

CAD—community access defibrillation plan

CCC—check, call, care

Call—for help, for and AED and 911 to receive emergency services

Cardiac arrest—heart ceases to function

Care—begin providing care to the victim such as CPR or first aid

Center of chest—between the nipples along breast bone

Chain of survival—denotes the likelihood of survival for patients with a cardiac emergency, the chain includes five steps: recognition of cardiac arrest and call for emergency services, immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rapid defibrillation, basic/advanced emergency medical service, advanced life support measures and post care

Check—view the scene for safety hazards

Chest rise—successful rescue breaths should inflate the chest slightly

Child—any person aged one year and up to puberty

Circulation—CPR circulates oxygenated blood through the body when the body is not doing so

Community access defibrillation plan—also known as public access defibrillation, a program supporting placement of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) throughout the community and public areas, often with records of locations kept at local emergency services

Compressions—thrusts 1 ½ to 2 inches in depth into the center of the chest to promote oxygenated blood flow to vital organs

CPR—cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Cycle—series of events repeated in order

D

Drowning—inhalation of water often resulting in cardiac arrest and even death

E

Electrocardiogram—also known as EKG is a display and record of heartbeat produced by electrocardiography

Electrocardiography—electrical activity measurement of the heart

Electrode—adhesive patches attached to monitor of AED to measure heart rate

EMT—emergency medical technician, beginning level care provider in emergency medical services

G

Gasp—strained inhale of breath

Gloves—hand covering worn as personal protective equipment

Good Samaritan Law—civil liability protection of bystander caregiver in emergency situation if conducted under good faith

H

Hands-only CPR—CPR with compressions only and omitting rescue breaths, usually used by those untrained or out of practice of standard CPR

Head tilt/Chin lift—maneuver to open the airway and deliver rescue breaths

Heart attack—caused by blockage of artery from being supplied blood and oxygen

Heel of the hand—part of the palm near the wrist

I

Immediate—done at once

Inches—1 ½ inch compression depth for infants, 2 inches compression depth for children through adults

Infant—any person less than one year of age

Intervention—action taken to improve upon a situation

K

Kneel—position supported by the knees used to administer CPR if victim is on the floor

L

Lack—to be without or not enough of something

M

Mask—CPR mask can be used to provide a barrier for delivering rescue breaths

Medical assistance—emergency services arriving as a result of calling 911

Medical prep razor—sometimes found in AED kits and used for quick removal of hair on patient’s skin in preparation for attaching AED pads

Mouth to mouth—method for delivering ventilation via rescue breaths from the rescuer’s mouth to the victim’s

Myocardial infarction—heart attack

N

Normal—typical or expected

O

One-way valve—permitting to flow in a single direction, such as the heart pumps blood or a CPR mask valve protects from patient’s fluids blocking air from the rescuer

Oxygen—life-supporting gas

P

Paramedic—trained emergency medical care for those who are seriously ill or injured, often with advanced training to treat and stabilize patient outside of the hospital setting, often from an ambulance

Pinch—to bring a finger and thumb together to close

Pocket mask—personal protective equipment (PPE), small mask creating barrier to deliver rescue breaths, also known as CPR mask

Pulse—throbbing rhythmically of arteries carrying blood throughout the body, best places on the body to feel for a pulse are either wrist, either elbow crease, either side of the neck, or the top of either foot

R

Recovery position—laying on the left side of the body which decreases aspiration issues

Rescue breaths—given commonly from mouth-to-mouth method to breathe for the victim and deliver oxygen to lungs during CPR

Respiration—action of taking a breath

Responsive—quick or able to react or answer

Resuscitate—to revive from unconsciousness or death

Revive—regaining of life, consciousness or ability

Rocking motion—used to propel rescuer’s body into the victim’s for best compression delivery

S

Safe—not exposed to rick or danger

Samaritan—helpful person

SCA—sudden cardiac arrest

SCD—sudden cardiac related death

Scissors—instrument used to cut, can be found in AED kits to easily remove clothing in preparation for AED pad attachment

Solid surface—victim should be moved to a solid surface (floor) if able to be done safely, for optimum positioning and support for CPR

Stack hands—both hands interlaced on top of each other in the center of the chest with heel of hand as base to deliver compressions

Sternum rub—common physical stimulus practiced in emergency response when patient fails to respond to verbal stimuli, sternum rub is the application of pain from a fist rubbed to the center of the chest

Stimuli—something that causes a reaction

Symptom—physical or mental condition indicative of having illness or disease

T

Teen—person between childhood and adulthood, usually eight years through puberty

Tempo—rate or speed of motion or music

Triage—medical method to prioritize treatments

U

Unconscious—to be unaware, something done without being realized

Unresponsive—without a response

V

Vein—tubes within the body carrying blood to the heart

Ventricular defibrillation—heart rhythm problem of rapid impulses similar to a quivering effect without pumping blood effectively

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